Ford Power Stroke
The Power Stroke is manufactured by Navistar International Corporation (International Truck and Engine Corporation) for Ford Motor Company. These engines are built in Indianapolis, Indiana, Huntsville, Alabama, and Brazil. Until 2011, where the Ford 6.7 Powerstroke was brought in house and is built, designed, and distributed by Ford.
All Ford Powerstroke engines use software from Ford.
Introduced in mid-1994 under the previous 7.3 Liter Turbo Diesel moniker, it was given the Power Stroke name in 1994. It is a turbodiesel truck engine used in Ford F-Series trucks, the Ford Econoline van, the Ford LCF commercial truck in a 4.5 litre V6 version, and the Ford Excursion SUV.
These engines primarily compete in the United States full-size pickup truckmarket with the Duramax V8 from General Motors/DMAX and the B series straight 6 from Dodge/Cummins.
The first 7.3 L (444 CID) was produced from 1988-1994. The original 7.3 L diesel is a nonturbo charged indirect injection (IDI) engine, followed by a turbocharged version for 1994 MY. It was very similar to the previous 6.9l IDI diesel engine, although the 7.3 IDI Turbo had different wrist pins, different piston rings, as well as different flow capacity fuel injectors. Additionally, the fuel injection pump output was slightly increased to compensate for the additional air charge. The 6.9 IDI, 7.3 IDI, and 7.3 IDIT engines are not in the powerstroke family. In mid 1994, the 7.3L Power Stroke diesel was introduced. Although the previous 7.3 had the same displacement, there were no similarities between the two. The Power Stroke was a direct injection motor, with electronic control. This model produced up to 250 hp (190 kW) and 525 lb·ft (712 N·m) of torque in automatic trucks during the last years of production, and 275 hp (205 kW) and 550 lb·ft (746 N·m) of torque on manual trucks. The 1994.5 to 1996/97 DI Power stroke had “single shot” HEUI (hydraulically actuated electronic unit injection) fuel injectors and ran a 15° high pressure oil pump (HPOP) to create the necessary oil pressure to fire the fuel injectors. 1994.5-1997 trucks used a cam driven fuel pump, whereas the 1999-2003 trucks used a frame rail mounted electric fuel pump. The California trucks in 1996 and 1997 had split shot fuel injectors whereas the the rest of the trucks didn’t get split shots until 1999. The difference between the split shot and single shot are the single shot just inject one charge of fuel per cycle, whereas the split shot releases a pre light load before the main charge to initiate combustion in a more damped manner. This controlled injection helps reduce the sharp combustion ‘knock’. The turbine housing was a 1.15 A/R. In 1999, an air to air intercooler was added. The intercooler cooled the charged air from the turbo making it denser. The cooler, denser air would increase the horsepower potential of the engine, while also reducing exhaust gas temperatures (EGTs). The turbine housing was changed to a .84 A/R housing and a wastegate was added. With larger injectors, the HPOP was advanced to 17° to change fueling characteristics. The 7.3 L DI Power Stroke was in production up until 2003 when it was replaced by the 6.0L. In 2003 Ford Motor Company split the year, early 2003 the 7.3 DI was available, and the later part of the year got the new 6.0 L.
- Fuel Injection System: HEUI (Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors)
- Valve Train: OHV 2-V
- Turbo Configuration: Single Standard
The 7.3 L (444 CID) Power Stroke was replaced by the 6.0 L (365 CID) for the 2003 model year. This version was built until mid December 2006 (2007 model year). Many 6.0 L Power Stroke engines were proven to be unreliable, and may have cost Ford hundreds of millions of dollars in warranty repairs and leading to a recall and repurchase of at least 500 trucks. There were initial quality challenges which Ford and Navistar have mostly rectified. The reliability of the later 6.0 L engines, after the dealership technicians were fully trained on the product, has been very good. Many early problems were disastrous, requiring total engine replacement. There were also minor problems resulting from the unreliable variable-vane turbocharger solenoid, EGR valve carbon deposit clogging or sticking, defective Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP) sensor/connector, numerous PCM (Powetrain Control Module) recalibrations, fuel injector harness chafing/crushing and other minor driveability and QC issues. Many problems were related to Ford’s software. There were many running changes to the engine and in the 2006 year model the 6.0 had the lowest rate of warranty claims across the board for Ford Motor Company when compared to all of Ford’s gas and diesel engines.
The EGR valve carbon deposit issue in the 6.0 L has proved common enough to merit some special attention. When the valve clogs, it requires replacement, which has often been done under the powertrain warranty. However, it is only a matter of time, depending on driving conditions, before the EGR valve will again fail and require replacement. When the valve fails, the “Check Engine” light comes on, and the idle becomes slightly more rough, though the engine continues to function with no apparent loss of power.
There are a number of fixes for this—authorized, and “otherwise”—that will remedy the problem on a longer-term basis. The most comprehensive remedy to this problem is with a new cooler that has been developed. This new EGR cooler has had the old style radiator-like body removed from inside the cooler and had it replaced by a new, stainless steel inner body. While still maintaining the same look, fit and function of the old cooler, this allows for a more robust and capable EGR cooler. It still allows the engine and the emissions systems to function properly and keeps the truck operating according to most local and federal laws. Another remedy is to modify the exhaust system so that exhaust gas no longer passes through the EGR system at all, also known as EGR deletion. This modification can, in some years of the 6.0L, itself trigger a “Check Engine” light, which aftermarket engine programming might remedy. However, while very effective and safe from a technical standpoint when performed properly, this modification is most certainly in the “otherwise” category and can void the engine warranty, chiefly because it is illegal in many jurisdictions to bypass the EGR or any other emissions-reduction system except for “off-road” use only.
The engine has an 3.74 in (95 mm) bore and 4.13 in (104.9 mm) stroke for a displacement of 365 cu in (6 L) or 5954 cc. It utilizes a turbocharger and intercooler, producing 325 hp (242 kW) and 570 lb·ft (773 N·m) with an 18:1compression ratio, with fuel cutoff at 4200 rpm, but having a redline of 4500 rpm only attainable with aftermarket performance programming.
This engine is still being utilized in the E-series until the end of the 2009 calendar year. The engine is the same configuration as the 2007 model year.
- Fuel Injection system: Split Shot HEUI (Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors)
- Valve Train: OHV 4-V
- Turbo configuration: Single Variable Vane Geometry (VGT)
A 6.4 L Power Stroke replaced the 6.0 L due to new emission regulations for on-highway diesel engines built after January 1, 2007; in early 2007 Ford introduced its redesigned 2008 Super Duty with the new 6.4 liter engine as an option.
The new engine has a 3.86 in (98 mm) bore and 4.13 in (104.9 mm) stroke, resulting in a total calculated displacement of 387 cu in (6.3 L) or (6333 cc). This new engine increased power ratings up to 350 hp (261 kW) and torque to 650 lb·ft (881 N·m) at the flywheel. Horsepower and torque are achieved at 3,000 rpm and 2,000 rpm respectively. It also features a twin turbo system. The main components of this system are a larger non wastegated turbo providing boost to a smaller variable geometry turbo. This system is designed to result in almost no turbo “lag” when taking off from a stop. The compound system is set up to provide a better throttle response while in motion to give a power flow not unlike a gasoline engine. The 6.4 liter also has a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The engine computer is also programmed to periodically inject extra fuel (known as “regeneration” in F-Series) to burn off accumulated soot into ash. This engine must run on Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel which has no more than 15 ppm sulfur content; using regular diesel fuel will result in emission equipment malfunctions and violate manufacturer warranties.
The 6.4 has had one recall due to the potential for diesel fuel or oil in the DPF causing a higher than normal exhaust gas temperature (EGT). The recall re-programs the engine computer to derate the fuel in order for the engine to reduce the DPF temperature if an EGT is found to be above Ford’s specifications.
- Fuel Injection System: High Pressure Commonrail
- Valve Train: OHV 4-ohv
This engine, codenamed Scorpion, was designed in-house by Ford. It includes a compacted graphite iron (CGI) block, reverse flow aluminum cylinder heads with dual water jackets and six bolts per cylinder, and 29,000 psi (1,999 bar) high-pressure common rail Bosch fuel system. The system delivers up to five injection events per cylinder per cycle using eight-hole piezo injectors to spray fuel into the piston bowl. B20 biodiesel support (allowing greener fueling options of up to 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent petroleum diesel). Unique inboard exhaust and outboard intake architecture, an automotive-industry first for a modern production diesel engine. Honeywell’s single-sequential turbocharger features an industry-first double-sided compressor wheel mounted on a single shaft. Combines the benefits of a small turbocharger (faster response) and a large turbocharger (ability to compress and force more air into the engine for more power) in one unit. 
Emissions controls include exhaust gas recirculation, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Output is 390 hp (291 kW) and 735 lb·ft (997 N·m).